This is a blog about music, photography, history, and culture.
These are photographs from my collection that tell a story about lost time and forgotten music.

Mike Brubaker
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The Faceless Statistics of War

10 November 2018

Tomorrow, November 11, 2018 will mark the 100th year since the end of World War I. Here in the United States it was originally designated  in 1919 as Armistice Day by President Woodrow Wilson and ever since November 11 has become "a day to be dedicated to the cause of world peace." In 1954 it was changed to Veterans Day so it could honor the veterans of all wars. Since 1918 those veterans have served American in 30 foreign wars and conflicts. In truth the United States still remains a nation at war, with combat troops serving in many troubled places around the globe.

Yet the casualty statistics of the Great War of 1914-1918 were truly staggering numbers that rapidly exceeded the human cost of wars in previous decades. As the war progressed every nation at war formed special bureaucratic offices to handle the public relations  necessary to sustain the war effort through these difficult times. As victors the allied propaganda still remains part of our societal consciousness, but Germany has evolved much more dramatically through two great wars. So it was surprising to discover this small bit of German ephemera – a postcard with the Great War's statistics from the German perspective of 1917.

_ _ _

AlleRechte vorbehalten. Nachdruck nur mit Genehmigung des Verlags. Gesetzlich geschütz.
All rights reserved. Reproduction only with the permission of the publisher. Protected by law.

Deutschlands Erfolge zu Lande  am Ende des dritten Kriegsjahres
(Hinzu kommen die Erfloge sit August 1917.)

 Germany's successes on land at the end of the third year of the war
(Added to this are the accomplishments of August 1917)
Gefangene   (ausschließlich der seit August 1917 gemachten Gefangenen)
Prisoners   (excluding prisoners taken since August 1917)

Über 3 Millionen Mann
(darunter 28755 Offiziere, ungefähr die Gesamteinwohnerzahl der Schweiz.)
Over 3 million men
(including 28,755 officers, approximately the total population of Switzerland)

        Russen . .           9, 500,000  . . .   Russian
        Franzosen . .     4,400,000    . . .  French
        Engländer . .     1,600,000    . . .  English
        Italiener . . .      1,600, 000   . . .   Italian
       Belgier, Serben                                Belgian, Serbian
       und Rumänen 
   1,040,000    . . .  and Romanian

(Ungefähr so viel wie die Gesamteinwohnerzahl Belgiens, Hollands, und der Schweiz.)
(about as much as the total population of Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland.)

Tote und Verwundete (ausschließlich der seit August 1917 hinzugekommenen Verluste):
Dead and wounded (excluding the losses added since August 1917):
12,156  Geschütze ~ Guns
8, 353 Maschinengewehre ~ machine guns

Geschütze (ausschließlich der seit August 1917 in Italien und Rußland
hinzugekommenen Geschützte und Maschinengewehre):

Guns (excluding guns and machine guns added in Italy and Russia
since August 1917)

Von Deutschland besetztes feindliches Gebiet am 17 August 1917:
555,500 qkm ~
sq km
Hostile territory occupied by Germany on 17 August 1917:
Hinzu kommt noch das seit dem 1 Aug 1917 besetzte Gebiet in Italien und Rußland
In addition there is the area occupied since 1 Aug 1917 in Italy and Russia

Das Deutsche Reich mißt: 540,800 qkm.
The German Reich measures 540,800 square kilometers.
Von den Feinden zur Zeit noch besetztes Gebiet in Europa:
900 qkm im Elsaß.

By the enemies at the time still occupied territory in Europe:
900 square kilometers in in Alsace

Die Gesamtzahl der erbeuteten Geschütze ist ungefähr 12 mal so groß
als die Zahl der gesamten amerik. Geschütze bei Ausbruch des Krieges.
The total number of captured guns is about 12 times greater
than the total number of American guns at the outbreak of war..

The numbers were doubtlessly intended to impress rather than horrify. Numbers to demonstrate the power of the military to protect a besieged people and defeat a multitude of enemies. Numbers of breathtaking size to quell any misapprehension of the German war effort.

This pocket guide to the war was prepared by author O. Schulze, and published by H. M. Hauschild, of Bremen.(The company was established in 1855 and endured the turbulent 20th century to succumb to bankruptcy in 2013)

In the message space on the back of the postcard is a note in purple pencil. I can't make out the first words, but the last are clear.

von Welt Kreig
from World War
1914 - 1918

_ _ _

Today the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany or Bundesrepublik Deutschland covers just 357,021 km² (137,847 sq mi) a consequence of both the first and second World Wars. But in 1917 when this postcard was published the German Empire was much larger. The static war of Germany's Western Front in France was not how the war was fought in the east against Russia where the Germans engaged in battles of mobility across what is now Poland and Ukraine. With Germany's ally, the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, the Eastern Front stretched roughly 1,600 miles from the Baltic to the Black Sea. By contrast the line of trenches on the Western Front covered only 440 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border. And where the allied forces in France suffered a loss of 7,500,000 men between August 1914 and November 11, 1918, Russia and its ally Romania fighting in the East against the Germans, Austrians, and Turks sustained 9,900,000 casualties. It is disturbing that those numbers are frighteningly similar to the exaggerated statistics on this propaganda postcard.

The number that I found most incredible was 3,000,000 prisoners. Very soon after the start of the war, Germany's push through Belgium and early success on the Eastern Front produced huge numbers of captured Belgian and Russian soldiers. By the war's end in 1918 there were  2,415,000 prisoners held in camps all across Germany. This map shows the principal POW camps of WW1 scattered around Germany as small red dots.

Prisoner of War Camps
in Germany
Source: The Internet

It is very difficult to comprehend just how large that number is within the much larger statistics of the Great War. By way of example here is a group photo of a single barrack at the POW Camp in Göttingen, a university town almost in the center of Germany. Pressed together shoulder to shoulder are ± 111 men, all soldiers of Belgium, France, and Russia. Removed from the war, they were at least safe from death in battle, but nevertheless they still endured guilt at their own survival; sorrow for their fallen comrades; and anger at their impotence to have any further purpose in the war.

It's important to have human faces to remember when we encounter numbers tragic beyond measure. To look into a soldier's eyes that have seen horrible things we can not know is perhaps one way to honor the sacrifice our veterans made for us.

This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
where photos become monuments to history.

The Breeches Role

03 November 2018

“Clothes make a man.”

It's supposedly a very old proverb,
but I prefer the longer quote
from Samuel Langhorne Clemens, aka Mark Twain.

“Clothes make the man.
Naked people have little or no influence on society.”

It has always been the case that
what a person wears defines how they will be perceived by others.
And in the world of show business it is especially true for entertainers.
For this female pianist, head turned toward the camera,
fingers poised over the keyboard,
her clothing of fancy neckerchief, ruffed collars,
smart tailcoat, and satin breeches
certainly prove that clothes do in fact make her the man.

Here is another example.
This looks like a handsome couple
but they are of the same sex,
as the gent with the top hat is actually a woman.

This next woman in a thoughtful pose
is also dressed as a man.
The key masculine garb are her breeches,
the short pants that were once the elegant mark
of a fashionable gentleman.

* * *

The first woman's photo is on a French postcard with a caption:
Rosine Damande,
Original Chanteuse, Diseuse au Piano.
Original singer, (dramatic)
monologuist and piano.

The postcard was never mailed and is unmarked
but it likely dates from 1910-1914.
The photographer left his stamp on the back:
Louis Martin, 52 Faubourg Saint-Martin, Paris.
Another clue that this is a French singer/pianist
is the ornately carved music stand above the keyboard.
It is a Pleyel piano, a celebrated French piano manufacturer
founded in Paris in 1807 by the composer Ignace Pleyel.
It was the favorite instrument of Frédéric Chopin,
who may be the 19th century pianist
Rosine Damande is dressed to resemble.

 * * *

The second postcard is of a pair female entertainers.

Ella und Leni Dejon
jugenl.(ich) Gesangs-Duett
Youthful Vocal Duet

They are two sisters pictured in
three small photo images surrounded
by an Art Nouveau style frame.
In the center the pair wear suitably feminine dresses
with embroidered decoration and curious berets,
perhaps an indication of French background,
maybe from the Alsace-Lorraine region
which was part of Germany from 1870 to 1918.
On either side they are dressed as a couple.
Presumably Ella is the shy girl on the left
and Leni is her attentive beau with top hat and then straw boater
who wears knee length breeches in both. 

The postcard was sent from Mainz
to Frankfurt am Main in 1908.

* * *

The third image come from a German postcard captioned:

Anny Köster, weibl.(ich) Humorist
Female Humorist

Pictured in two small photos, seated and standing,
Anny's costume is very similar to Rosine's,
with a ruffled cravat, tailcoat, and short breeches.
The round object Anny holds is a cap, I think,
possibly one like those worn
by male university students in Germany. 
The music halls of Germany and Austria
provided a very large circuit
for traveling theatrical entertainers
who produced thousands of promotional postcards.
But the way
Anny Köster chose to appear in a man's wardrobe
was probably a way to stand out as a female
as the majority of German comics were men.
Since many of these humorists often included
comic songs and musical instruments,
I suspect that they were part of Anny's performance too.

This postcard was also sent for Frankfurt
but this time posted from Leipzig on 14 July 1911.

Entertainers in our century dress appropriately for their music and their audience's expectation. A country and western singer must wear a cowboy hat, even if they've never ridden a horse or milked a cow. A rock band must appear in torn jeans and ragged tee shirt, even after years of success have made them millionaires. And in my closet are the uniforms of an orchestra musician: white tie with black tail coat and a formal black tie tuxedo. Though I wouldn't wear either livery around the house or out for an errand to the supermarket, when you are on stage this fashion left over from the 19th century does make you feel like a proper musical artist.

But in the 1900s the female entertainers pictured on these postcards followed different social constraints and unwritten rules on proper dress. Trousers and pant suits were not suitable for women's ordinary wear in public or private. These women were indulging in the freedom of the stage to assume the Breeches Role, a theatrical contrivance mainly associated with opera when a woman dons "breeches", a gentleman's knee pants, to portray a man. Mozart's Cherubino in The Marriage of Figaro, or Octavian in Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier are two of the most famous examples of a Breeches Role, sometimes called Trouser Role. A female singer plays a male character, purposely scored for an alto or mezzo voice. The audience knows the artist is a woman, but suspends disbelief to watch her rendition of a man. It's vaguely similar to transvestite cross-dressing but in the 1900s the breeches had a different connotation. It would be wrong for our modern eyes to interpret any sexual orientation to these performers. It was just play acting.

So do clothes really make the man?
Or does it require a woman's touch?

This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday 
Click the link for more grand stories about pianos and bears.


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